DISORDERS

Neuro developmental disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders can be defined as a group of disorders in which the development of the central nervous system is disturbed/ disrupted. This can include developmental brain dysfunction, which can manifest as neuropsychiatric problems or impaired motor function, language, learning or non-verbal communication.


Schizophrenia spectrum and other Psychotic disorders

Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder that impacts how a person feels, thinks and behaves. People with schizophrenia usually seem to have lost touch with reality. Although schizophrenia is not as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling.


Bipolar and related disorders

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.

Depressive disorders

Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and often by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. Even though the exact cause is not known but probably involves heredity, changes in neurotransmitter levels, altered neuroendocrine function, and psychosocial factors. Diagnosis is based on history. Treatment usually consists of drugs, psychotherapy, or both and sometimes electroconvulsive therapy.

Anxiety disorders

Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks).

Types of Disorders

Anxiety disorder is an umbrella term that includes different conditions:



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Panic disorder

You feel terror that strikes at random. During a panic attack, you may also sweat, have chest pain, and feel palpitations (unusually strong or irregular heartbeats). Sometimes you may feel like you’re choking or having a heart attack.

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Social anxiety disorder

Also called social phobia, this is when you feel overwhelming worry and self-consciousness about everyday social situations. You fixate about others judging you or on being embarrassed or ridiculed.

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Specific phobias

You feel intense fear of a specific object or situation, such as heights or flying. The fear goes beyond what’s appropriate and may cause you to avoid ordinary situations.

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Generalized anxiety disorder

You feel excessive, unrealistic worry and tension with little or noreason.